使用软件源加速软件包安装

概述

在 TKE 环境中,在容器运行中或构建镜像时,如果需要安装一些软件包,通常会使用基础镜像内自带的包管理工具进行安装,而基础镜像内默认的软件源在国内使用往往会比较慢,造成安装过程非常慢。而腾讯云实际本身提供了各个 linux 发行版的软件源,我们将容器内的软件源替换为腾讯云的软件源即可实现加速。

确定 linux 发行版版本

一般容器镜像都是基于某个基础镜像构建而来,通常查看 Dockerfile 就可以直到基础镜像用的哪个 linux 发行版。

也可以直接进入运行中的容器,执行 cat /etc/os-release 来检查基础镜像的 linux 发行版版本。

Ubuntu

先根据 Ubuntu 发新版替换软件源,然后执行 apt update -y 更新软件源,最后再使用 apt install -y xxx 来安装需要的软件包。

下面是各发行版的软件源替换方法

Ubuntu 20

cat > /etc/apt/sources.list <<'EOF'
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
#deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
#deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
EOF

Ubuntu 18

cat > /etc/apt/sources.list <<'EOF'
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
#deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
#deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
EOF

Ubuntu 16

cat > /etc/apt/sources.list <<'EOF'
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
EOF

Debian

先根据 Debian 发新版替换软件源,然后执行 apt update -y 更新软件源,最后再使用 apt install -y xxx 安装需要的软件包。

下面是各发行版的软件源替换方法

Debian 10

cat > /etc/apt/sources.list <<'EOF'
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster main contrib non-free
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster-updates main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster-updates main contrib non-free
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free

# deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free
# deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free
# deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
# deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian buster-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
EOF

Debian 9

cat > /etc/apt/sources.list <<'EOF'
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch main contrib non-free
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian-security stretch/updates main
#deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch-backports main contrib non-free
#deb http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch-proposed-updates main contrib non-free

deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch main contrib non-free
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian-security stretch/updates main
#deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch-backports main contrib non-free
#deb-src http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/debian stretch-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
EOF

CentOS

先删除 CentOS 镜像中所有自带软件源:

rm -f /etc/yum.repos.d/*

再根据 CentOS 发新版替换软件源,然后执行下面命令更新缓存:

yum clean all
yum makecache

最后再使用 yum install -y xxx 来安装需要的软件包。

下面是各发行版的软件源替换方法

CentOS 8

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo <<'EOF'
# Qcloud-Base.repo

[BaseOS]
name=Qcloud-$releasever - BaseOS
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/BaseOS/$basearch/os/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Qcloud-8
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Epel.repo <<'EOF'
[epel]
name=EPEL for redhat/centos $releasever - $basearch
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/epel/$releasever/Everything/$basearch
failovermethod=priority
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-8
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-centosplus.repo <<'EOF'
# Qcloud-centosplus.repo

[centosplus]
name=Qcloud-$releasever - Plus
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/os/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Qcloud-8
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/Qcloud-Extras.repo <<'EOF'
# Qcloud-Extras.repo

[extras]
name=Qcloud-$releasever - Extras
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/os/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Qcloud-8
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/Qcloud-Devel.repo <<'EOF'
# Qcloud-Devel.repo

[Devel]
name=Qcloud-$releasever - Devel WARNING! FOR BUILDROOT USE ONLY!
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/$contentdir/$releasever/Devel/$basearch/os/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Qcloud-8
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/Qcloud-AppStream.repo <<'EOF'
# Qcloud-AppStream.repo

[AppStream]
name=Qcloud-$releasever - AppStream
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/AppStream/$basearch/os/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Qcloud-8
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/Qcloud-PowerTools.repo <<'EOF'
# Qcloud-PowerTools.repo

[PowerTools]
name=Qcloud-$releasever - PowerTools
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/PowerTools/$basearch/os/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Qcloud-8
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/Qcloud-HA.repo <<'EOF'
# Qcloud-HA.repo

[HighAvailability]
name=Qcloud-$releasever - HA
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/$contentdir/$releasever/HighAvailability/$basearch/os/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Qcloud-8
EOF

CenOS 7

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo <<'EOF'
[extras]
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
name=Qcloud centos extras - $basearch
[os]
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
name=Qcloud centos os - $basearch
[updates]
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
name=Qcloud centos updates - $basearch
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Epel.repo <<'EOF'
[epel]
name=EPEL for redhat/centos $releasever - $basearch
failovermethod=priority
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/epel/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-7
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/epel/$releasever/$basearch/
EOF

CentOS 6

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo <<'EOF'
[extras]
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
name=Qcloud centos extras - $basearch
[os]
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
name=Qcloud centos os - $basearch
[updates]
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
name=Qcloud centos updates - $basearch
EOF

cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Epel.repo <<'EOF'
[epel]
name=epel for redhat/centos $releasever - $basearch
failovermethod=priority
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/epel/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6
enabled=1
baseurl=http://mirrors.tencentyun.com/epel/$releasever/$basearch/
EOF
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